June 14, 2007
Safety and Security: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Violence
by Rachael Diprose
Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), and The Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security, and Ethnicity (CRISE)
University of Oxford, May 2007
Available online as PDF file [64p] at: http://www.ophi.org.uk/pubs/DiproseSafety.pdf
"...One of the greatest impediments to human security in the post-Cold War era is not inter-state wars resulting in mass destruction fought by the armed forces of nation states, but violence, perpetrated by individuals, groups, and state actors within the internal borders of nations (Hegre et al, 2001).
Violence, resulting from everyday crime, large scale communal conflicts, insurgencies, or through state repression can and does undo the development gains achieved in education, health, employment, capital generation and infrastructure provision. Violence is a public health problem, a human rights problem, a community problem, and a problem for the state and the international community.
It impedes human freedom to live safely and securely and can sustain poverty traps in many communities. However, violence is not always an inevitable part of human interaction. Many multi-ethnic, multi-religious, and poor peoples manage human interaction and channel conflict and the propensity for violence in peaceful ways...."
Table of Contents
2 Violence: safety and security as a dimension of poverty
2.1 What is violence?.
2.2 Types of violence: bridging conflict and crime analyses
2.3 Why consider this dimension? Violence and its impacts
2.4 Correlations between poverty, conflict and crime-related violence
3 Data collection: what are available and what are the issues?
3.1 Data on violence and threats to security in the form of crime
3.2 Data on conflict and related forms of violence
3.3 Why use household surveys?
4.1 Part 1: Indicators of incidents of threats to physical safety and security: against property
4.1.1 Sub-forms of property related crime and violence
4.1.2 Questions asked for six-sub forms of property related crime and violence.
4.2 Part 2: Indicators of incidents of threats to physical safety and security: against person 1
4.3 Part 3: Domestic violence.
4.4 Part 4: Perceptions of safety and violence
6 Appendix 1: Summary of Questionnaires, Indicators, and Recommendations
7 Appendix 2: Indicators of violence, physical safety, and security: comprehensive module
8 Appendix 3: Questions on physical safety and security from internationally comparable surveys
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