March 29, 2007
Cesar Chavez - A Model of Men's Nonviolence
By: Emiliano Diaz de Leon
This column will appear in Saturdays issue of the San Benito News.
If you walk into my office at Casa de Proyecto Libertad in Harlingen, where I work as an Immigrant Rights Legal Advocate, you will see two posters â€“ one of Emiliano Zapata and the other of Cesar Chavez. Both of these men struggled for the rights of the poor and oppressed and organized movements that changed society; however, the tactics they used to achieve this social change differed greatly. Today, on his birthday, I would like to reflect on the example of change set forth by Cesar Chavez.
Chavez once said:
Nonviolence is not inaction. It is not discussion. It is not for the timid or weakâ€¦Nonviolence is hard work. It is the willingness to sacrifice. It is the patience to win.
No one lived these words better than the man himself. Cesar Chavez modeled a deeper meaning of nonviolence, not just as a way of acting but as a basic principle of life. He realized that in order to change the world, he had to be willing to start with himself; therefore, in 1962, he resigned from his post of national director of the Community Service Organization and founded the United Farm Workers of America. Influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and the Southern Civil Rights movement, Chavez humbly led the union for more than three decades with nonviolence as the guiding tenet for all of his actions. Even in the face of violent attacks from landowners and growers, Chavez maintained his commitment to nonviolence, organizing and participating in successful strikes and boycotts, as well as fasting for nearly a month on several occasions to send a message to farm workers, who began to speak of responding in kind to the violent assaults against them. Chavez sacrificed personally, going days without eating, earning less than $6,000 a year, never owning a house, and leaving his family with no savings upon his death in April of 1993, but his sacrifice and dedication won fair wages, medical coverage, humane living conditions, and above all dignity and respect for farm workers. Cesar Chavez was an ordinary man who accomplished extraordinary feats, always believing que â€śsĂ se puede.â€ť
LUPE (La Union del Pueblo Entero) has organized a march in memory of this extraordinary man for 9:30 AM today, beginning at Guajardo Park in San Juan and ending at the LUPE office with cultural activities. Through the work of LUPE, I see Chavezâ€™s spirit of community and his passion in action. I praise them for their work and encourage others to walk in line with them, bringing to life the words of Cesar Chavez:
When you have people together who believe in something very strongly â€“ whether itâ€™s religion or politics or unions, things happenâ€¦We cannot seek achievement for ourselves and forget about progress and prosperity for our communityâ€¦Our ambitions must be broad enough to include the aspirations and needs of others, for their sakes and for our own.
In this time, when so much emphasis is placed on self-preservation and retaliation, may the words and legacy of Cesar Chavez inspire and challenge us all to become the peace we seek in our community and in the world.
Emiliano Diaz de Leon is the director of the Men's Resource Center of South Texas.
March 19, 2007
Yesterday's Men: Lost opportunities in ending violence against women
By Bruce Wood
Our dried voices, when We whisper together Are quiet and meaningless As wind in dry grass T.S. Eliot, â€śThe Hollow Menâ€ť
Tower In spite of more than 30 years of intervention and education strategies designed to end violence against women by their male partners, such violence remains as prevalent as ever. It is high time we took stock of our strategies and our assumptions to determine what is and is not workingâ€”and what more can be done.
FOR GENERATIONS, WOMEN have been speaking out individually and collectively to end gender-based violence, though Canadian society as a whole only started to engage publicly with the problem in the late 1960s and 1970s.
Lenore Walkerâ€™s now classic The Battered Woman (1979), which followed Erin Pizzeyâ€™s groundbreaking Scream Quietly or the Neighbors Will Hear (1974),were among the first widely read books to expose the scope, dynamics, effects and origins of this worldwide problem. These works, among others, forced the long suppressed issue of gender-based violence into broad public exposure and discussion.
Relying solely on statistics from American police departments and womenâ€™s shelters, Walker estimated that in North America one out of every ten adult women was, or would become, a victim of violence by their husbands or partners. Later research, however, would confirm that millions of women who are assaulted never report the abuse to the police or seek safety at a womenâ€™s shelter, demonstrating the unreliability of official statistics in estimating total rates of abuse. Those of us working in the field at the time estimated that three or four out of every ten women were victims of domestic violence, with the risks even greater among Canadaâ€™s First Nations women.
While so much more could have and should have been done at that time, Canadians at least began to develop programs of support, advocacy, education and intervention for women and children. Since the 1970s we have seen attitudes gradually shift from ignorance and quiet tolerance to awareness and disapprobation (although, admittedly, we are still subjected to a constant barrage of media representations of men as violent, and violence as a valid and normal response to adversity).
Nationwide, we now have at least 470 publicly supported shelters for abused women and children, and the number of these shelters is growing, even in spite of dramatic funding cutbacks in some provinces. There are hundreds of education and counseling programs for children who have witnessed violence in the home. Millions of dollars in public funds are dedicated to research and public education programs on violence against women each year. There are a number of programs delivered through our schools to boys and girls promoting respectful, healthy relationships. And there are 205 treatment programs for men who have been convicted of assaulting their partners or who voluntarily seek assistance for abusive behaviourâ€”though this number has shrunk in recent years as a result of funding cutbacks in Ontario and BC. However, the number of men charged and incarcerated for assaulting their partners, uttering threats, and breaching conditions of peace bonds and restraining orders has grown exponentially despite our growing societal disapprobation for violence against women.
The incidence of violence against women by men has not been reduced in any considerable way in the past few decades. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics estimates that the frequency of violence against women remains at approximately three out of every ten. It is well past time we took stock of our strategies and the assumptions that have informed those strategies for the last 30 years.
Violence against women will not end while we ignore a whole generation of our brothers, co-workers and friends.
Conversations with other men
I REMEMBER TAKING PART IN CONFERENCES and small working group discussions in the late 1970s in which women (as well as men, though in smaller numbers) came together to discuss ending violence against women. We all agreed on the need for shelters, advocacy and education for women and education and support for children who witnessed violence. There was lots of talk about how to break the generational cycle of abuse through focusing energy and resources on ensuring that the next generation of men was more respectful of women and that the next generation of women did not expect or accept abuse as a â€śnormalâ€ť part of a heterosexual relationship.
When it came to educating adult men outside of compulsory treatment programs, however, there was silence. Some among us even went so far as to suggest that things could only get better as the current generation of men â€śquietly died off.â€ť We would need to provide criminal prosecution and jails for men who were convicted of assaulting women, but public funds and energies should not otherwise go to waste on adult men.
The result has been an almost total absence of education work with the vast majority of adult men. There have been no significant efforts to enlist the active support of the millions of Canadian men who are not violent or abusive in speaking out against violence against women. The only major exceptions to this have been the White Ribbon Campaign (which is now focused on younger men and youth) and some sensational television and newspaper ads that have relied on shaming abusers as the primary motivator for changeâ€”an unreliable and generally ineffective approach.
I would suggest that this unwillingness to support and deliver comprehensive education for adult men in their workplaces, trade unions, political parties, business groups, service clubs, religious places, sports and recreation organizations and professional development forums is a significant contributing factor in our failure to reduce the rate of violence against women by men.
Those men who, like myself, have proudly declared ourselves â€śpro-feministâ€ť or allies with women should be held particularly accountable for refusing to see that violence against women will not end while we ignore a whole generation of our brothers, co-workers and friends. Instead, pro-feminist men have spent more time publicly condemning other menâ€™s attitudes and behaviours than engaging with and animating that large body of men who might well be natural allies in ending domestic violence. We certainly have enjoyed the celebrity status we receive in the media and the congratulatory support of some feminists, but we have done little to establish links with other men who may not share our gender politics.
When we have attempted to dialogue with these men, the interactions have been less than successful and we have been quick to write these experiences off as demonstrating how â€śdeeply socializedâ€ť most men are and how stubbornly they refuse to examine their privilege and power. With men of colour, particularly First Nations men, our generalizations about men and power have demonstrated a lack of sensitivity and a failure to understand the intersecting oppressions of class, race, and gender.
Consequently, heterosexual men seeking connection with and support from other men have proven easy targets for groups like the Promise Keepers (a Conservative Christian menâ€™s organization), menâ€™s rights groups and centres, â€śfathersâ€™ rightsâ€ť organizations, and various other reactionary menâ€™s groups. Men who sought support in these groups could feel like they belonged and were welcomed because they were not spoken to condescendingly or reproachfully. Indeed, such groups often play on the language of victimhood, encouraging men to reassert their â€śrightfulâ€ť place at the top of the hierarchy.
The result is that for almost 30 years now, pro-feminist men and their organizations have squandered the opportunity presented by feminist analyses of male violence, gender inequality and gender stereotyping to work with other men for progressive change and real gender equality.
Is it possible that our palpable disdain for â€śnon pro-feministâ€ť men (perhaps stemming from our fear of them or even our fear of being too much like them) may have stood in the way of establishing productive and positive connections with them? â€śSurely we cannot be like them?â€ť we thought. Many pro-feminist men were particularly offended when the late Andrea Dworkin suggested that â€śall men are capable of rape.â€ť Could Dworkin not see that we were different from them?
In 2000 I wrote an article for the Globe and Mail in which I suggested that one of the most important things I had learned in over 20 years of working on issues of male violence was how similar I was in my thoughts, attitudes and socialization to the men with whom I worked. This shared learning experience about what it means to be a man and how our identity as men affects our relationships with women should always have been our starting point in working with adult men.
Instead, our failure to take up this work has contributed to the lack of progress in reducing the incidence of violence against women. An additional and alarming consequence of this failure is evidenced in the increase in dating violence by young males. The hope that we could create â€śbetter menâ€ť in isolation from their fathers, uncles and grandfathers has been misguided. We must challenge the assumption that men canâ€™t change or wonâ€™t let go of privilege. Pro-feminist men in particular must let go of the arrogant attitude that we are somehow different from other men who fit the gender stereotype we struggle against.
Without the voices of adult men speaking both publicly and privately against violence against women, without adult men demonstrating in their day-to-day lives equal and respectful relationships with women, and without clear challenges by adult men to the objectification of women and girls in the media and in our daily interactions, we will not see the boys of today improve upon the attitudes and behaviours of the men of yesterday.
We must challenge the assumption that men canâ€™t change or wonâ€™t let go of privilege.
The trouble with corks
THANKS TO THE VOICES OF CANADIANS like Todd Augusta Scott, Dale Trimble and Harry Stefanakis, those who work in Canadaâ€™s treatment programs for abusive men have recently started to reconsider the finger-pointing, shaming and blaming approach to encouraging change. Shaming, they argue, does not allow for anything but the most surface of changes. The metaphor often used for this approach is â€ścorking a bottleâ€ť: if one corks a bottle successfully the contents will not come outâ€”but the pressure may continue to build. What we hope for, rather, is real change that empties the bottle or refills it with something healthier and safer for everyone.
Probably the most dramatic consequence of this mistaken approach is the number of men who have completed treatment programs and have taken their own lives months or years later. (In my Globe article I described six such suicides of men with whom I had worked personally.) Sadly, after these suicide completions I have sometimes heard the comment, â€śwell at least he didnâ€™t hurt anyone else this time.â€ť
Since the late 1970s, several hundred thousand men have completed the standard psycho-educational feminist-informed treatment programs in community settings and correctional environments. Many of those men have learned successfully to stop using violence against their intimate partners. Yet almost none of these men have subsequently raised their voices in public opposition to domestic violence. Remarkably, few have felt sufficiently engaged to become advocates and peer support counselors. Some might suggestâ€”and I am one of thoseâ€”that this is representative of our approach with all men. Stern lecturing and shaming may bring about behaviour change but it will not encourage a deeper reconsideration of learned attitudes and thoughts or motivate past offenders to speak out about violence.
Thankfully, these practices are gradually being replaced by models which continue to hold men accountable but offer respect throughout the process of change. Two recent findings give me hope that this sort of shift in how we work with and talk to men can significantly reduce the incidence of violence against women.
The first is from our growing body of knowledge in intervening with bullying in school environments. Canadaâ€™s Debra Peplar and Wendy Craig have demonstrated that the single most effective intervention in ending bullying comes from the peers of the bullyâ€”not from school officials, parents or police. When a peer intervenes appropriately (not abusively) the bullying incident will almost always end within seconds.
The second example comes from the very work that we counselors, therapists and educators have been doing in treatment programs for men who are violent to their partners or spouses. Since the 1980s these programs have been subjected to some fairly intense scrutiny to justify their public funding. Over and over again the research and follow-up studies with men who have completed these programs and their current or future partners indicate a dramatic reduction in physical violence and a significant reduction in verbal and psychological abuse.
The programs studied have been extremely diverse in approach, length, philosophy, and relationship to the criminal justice system. They include research on psycho-educational groups in Scotland, feminist-informed education groups in the United States, and narrative therapy groups in British Columbia. They all, however, share one common feature: they provide a space for men to come together to talk, learn, and challenge one another. I believe that this â€śpeer interventionâ€ť model is the reason for their success.
The power of voices from a shared experience or shared background to influence, provoke questioning and motivate change has been demonstrated to be effective elsewhere. Surely we have good reason to believe we can learn from and expand upon these successes by expanding our education and outreach efforts to include menâ€”even, and perhaps especially, men with a history of violence.
With great respect for how far the feminist movements have brought us, and with due recognition for the leadership of women in moving all of us to re-examine our gender roles, it is time to acknowledge where mistakes have been made. It is time for men to start talking with men.
Bruce Wood is the Executive Director of the Saskatoon Menâ€™s Centre and the author of two books on male violence: A Change of Seasons (1994) and Moving Towards the Light (2000).
March 08, 2007
International Women's Day
On International Women's Day, give something meaningful to women all around the world: Help advance legislation that will reduce violence aimed at women.
Around the world, violence against women is at epidemic proportions. Every year, violence in the home and community devastates the lives of millions of women. Violence against women is a human rights violation - a grave one that includes rape, domestic violence, acid burning, dowry deaths, so-called honor killings, female genital cutting and other harmful traditional practices, and human trafficking. At least one out of every three women globally will be beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime.
New legislation soon to be introduced into the U.S. Senate and the House will address these frightening abuses. Working through the international assistance that the U.S. already provides to countries around the world, it will offer resources to support best practices against violence. The inspiring thing about this legislation is that it incorporates training, protection, and services for women across a range of situations, from the fight against HIV-AIDS, to school and health clinics, to court systems, to workplaces, to refugee camps.
Call your lawmakers in Congress today, and tell them that you want them to sign on as co-sponsors of this bill. It's simple:
â€˘ Call 202-224-3121 and ask for the office of your Senator or Representative. (If you don't know who they are, you can find out by clicking these links for Senators and Representatives.
â€˘ Tell their office that you are a constituent, and you care about the well-being of women around the world.
â€˘ Urge them to cosponsor the International Violence Against Women Act.
â€˘ If you feel so moved, share one reason why this issue matters so much to you.
That easy phone call, on or around International Women's Day, can help bring safety, security, and new options in life to women worldwide. You'd be hard-pressed to offer them a better gift.
Director of Outreach & Membership
Women's Edge Coalition
P.S. If you prefer to email, you can do that from the links above. Use the same easy steps outlined above. A short letter is fine.
March 05, 2007
Sonke Gender Justice Network releases report on working with men and boys for U.N. Commission on the Status of Women.
The Sonke Gender Justice Network launches the South Africa Country Report entitled "Working with men and boys to achieve gender equality" for the 2007 United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.
Read the executive summary or download the full report at:
At the 48th session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) in 2004, the South Africa government and the governments of other participating countries made formal commitments to implementing a range of recommendations aimed at â€śinvolving men and boys in achieving gender equalityâ€ť. To document progress made since 2004, the Sonke Gender Justice Network was commissioned by the Office on the Status of Women within the Presidency to develop the official country report on involving men and boys in achieving gender equality. The country report offers the most comprehensive overview to date of work being done by government and civil society to engage men and boys in achieving gender equality. It identifies a number of key themes and issues a series of frank recommendations to accelerate work with men and to deepen its impact.
Key themes: The report indicates that "growing numbers of men are taking a stand against gender based violence" and argues that "there is visible support for work with men to achieve gender equality amongst some senior government officials" with evidence of "widespread adoption of work with men in many government departments". The report also makes the case, though, that "men's violence against women remains unacceptably high" and notes that critics contend that low conviction rates for rape and domestic violence mean that "government inadvertedly sends a message to perpetrators that, in all likelihood, they can commit violence against women with relative impunity". The report states that "current efforts rely too heavily on workshops and community outreach" without sufficient attention to "other important change strategies such as advocacy for policy change or rights based activism". The report also draws attention to "problems related to capacity, a lack of clarity of purpose, poor coordination and insufficient long term commitment".
Key recommendations: The report calls for all sectors in South Africa to "intensify their efforts to end men's violence against women" and argues that important first steps in achieving this will include developing "a clear set of principles to guide work with men", expanding "existing policy frameworks to strengthen coordination and planning", "building the capacity of the public sector to engage men and boys in achieving gender equality". The report calls explicitly for a stronger focus on "rights based advocacy and community mobilisation to demand an end to men's violence against women". The report also calls for a stronger focus on reaching men and boys in rural areas and for more interventions focused on educating boys and young adult men, specifically arguing for efforts that "build youth capacity to assert leadership on increasing gender equality". The report also draws attention specifically to the relationship between men's behaviour and the spread of HIV/AIDS and argues that government and civil society should launch a "men and HIV services campaign to increase men's use of HIV services". The report also urges civil society organisations and community members to support and hold government accountable by participating in structures such as community policing fora and local AIDS councils, amongst others.
The report can be viewed at http://www.genderjustice.org.za/sa-country-report-2007.html
For questions or additional information, please contact Bafana Khumalo on +27 82 905 7587 or e-mial firstname.lastname@example.org. For more information on the Sonke Gender Justice Network, please visit our website at www.genderjustice.org.za.